Computer research – Cetril http://cetril.org/ Sun, 23 Jan 2022 01:44:38 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://cetril.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/cropped-icon-32x32.png Computer research – Cetril http://cetril.org/ 32 32 New research raises fears that promising new educational interventions are being ‘unnecessarily abandoned’ – ScienceDaily https://cetril.org/new-research-raises-fears-that-promising-new-educational-interventions-are-being-unnecessarily-abandoned-sciencedaily/ Sun, 23 Jan 2022 01:44:38 +0000 https://cetril.org/new-research-raises-fears-that-promising-new-educational-interventions-are-being-unnecessarily-abandoned-sciencedaily/ Promising new educational interventions are potentially ‘unnecessarily abandoned’ because trials to test their effectiveness may be insufficiently faithful to the original research, a study has warned. The caveat comes after researchers ran a large-scale computer simulation of more than 11,000 research trials to examine how much ‘fidelity’ influenced the results. In science and the social […]]]>

Promising new educational interventions are potentially ‘unnecessarily abandoned’ because trials to test their effectiveness may be insufficiently faithful to the original research, a study has warned.

The caveat comes after researchers ran a large-scale computer simulation of more than 11,000 research trials to examine how much ‘fidelity’ influenced the results. In science and the social sciences, “fidelity” is the extent to which tests evaluating a new innovation adhere to the design of the original experiment on which that innovation is based.

In the same way that scientists test a new drug before it is approved, new learning enhancement strategies are often thoroughly evaluated in schools or other settings before being rolled out.

Many innovations are rejected at this stage because trials indicate that they result in little or no learning progress. However, academics have been concerned for some time that in some cases fidelity losses could jeopardize the lawsuit. In many cases, fidelity is not systematically measured or reported.

The new study put that theory to the test. Researchers from the University of Cambridge and Carnegie Mellon University have conducted thousands of computer-modeled trials, with millions of simulated participants. They then looked at the extent to which changes in fidelity changed the ‘effect size’ of an intervention.

They found that even relatively subtle deviations in fidelity can have a significant impact. For every 5% of lost reliability in the simulated follow-up tests, the effect size dropped by 5%.

In real-world settings, this could mean that some high-potential innovations are deemed unsuitable for use because low fidelity skews the results. The study notes: “There is growing concern that a significant number of poor outcomes in educational interventions… are due to lack of fidelity, resulting in the unnecessary removal of potentially strong programs.

The results can be particularly useful to organizations such as the Education Endowment Foundation (EEF) in the UK or the What Works Clearinghouse in the US, both of which assess new research in education. The EEF reports the results of project testing on its website. Currently, more than three out of five reports indicate that the tested intervention resulted in no progress, or negative progress, for students.

Michelle Ellefson, professor of cognitive science at the University of Cambridge’s Faculty of Education, said: “A lot of money is being invested in these trials, so we need to look closely at how well they control fidelity. Reproducibility in research is extremely important, but the danger is that we could reject promising interventions due to violations of reliability and create an unnecessary trust gap between teachers and researchers.

Academics have often referred to a “replication crisis” precisely because the results of so many studies are difficult to replicate. In education, trials are often conducted by a mixture of teachers and researchers. Larger studies, in particular, create many opportunities for inadvertent loss of fidelity, either through human factors (such as misread research instructions) or through changes in the research environment (e.g., the time or test conditions).

Ellefson and Professor Daniel Oppenheimer of Carnegie Mellon University developed a computerized randomized controlled trial that initially simulated an imaginary intervention in 40 classrooms, each with 25 students. They repeated it over and over again, each time adjusting a host of variables – including the size of the intervention’s potential effect, the students’ ability levels and the reliability of the trial itself.

In later models, they added additional confounders that might further affect the results – for example, the quality of school resources or the fact that better teachers might have better-performing students. The study combined representative permutations of the input variables, modeling 11,055 trials in total.

Strikingly, across the entire data set, the results indicated that for every 1% of reliability lost in a trial, the effect size of the intervention also decreases by 1%. This 1:1 match means that even a trial with, say, 80% reliability would see a significant drop in effect size, which could cast doubt on the value of the intervention being tested.

A more granular analysis then revealed that the effect of fidelity losses tended to be larger where a larger effect size was anticipated. In other words, the most promising search innovations are also more susceptible to fidelity violations.

Although confounding factors weakened this overall relationship, reliability had by far the greatest impact on effect sizes in all tests conducted by the researchers.

Ellefson and Oppenheimer suggest that organizations conducting research trials may want to establish firmer processes for assuring, measuring, and reporting fidelity so that their recommendations are as robust as possible. Their article references research from 2013 which found that only 29% of after-school intervention studies measured loyalty, and another study, in 2010, which found that only 15% of after-school intervention studies social work collected fidelity data.

“When teachers are asked to try new teaching methods, it is natural – perhaps even admirable – that they want to adapt the method to the specific needs of their students,” Oppenheimer said. reliable scientists, however, it is essential to follow instructions precisely; otherwise, researchers cannot know whether the intervention will be largely effective. It is really important for research teams to monitor and measure the reliability of studies, in order to draw valid conclusions.

Ellefson said: “Many organizations do an excellent job of independently evaluating research, but they need to ensure that fidelity is both measured and scrupulously verified. Sometimes the correct response when results cannot be replicated may not be to dismiss the research altogether, but to step back and ask why it might have worked in one case, but not in another? »

The findings are published in Psychological methods.

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Funding tomorrow’s research https://cetril.org/funding-tomorrows-research/ Fri, 21 Jan 2022 02:03:44 +0000 https://cetril.org/funding-tomorrows-research/ image: Left to right. Correlated quantum materials and solid-state quantum systems: Zhanybek Alpichshev, Andrew Higginbotham, Georgios Katsaros (© Ferrigato), Kimberly Modic, Maksym Serbyn. SPyCoDE: Thomas A. Henzinger (© Rigaud), Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogia, Krzysztof Pietrzak. Meiosis: Beatriz Vicoso. see Following Credit: ©ISTA Collaboration is essential to successful research and requires adequate funding. This is why the Austrian […]]]>

image: Left to right. Correlated quantum materials and solid-state quantum systems: Zhanybek Alpichshev, Andrew Higginbotham, Georgios Katsaros (© Ferrigato), Kimberly Modic, Maksym Serbyn. SPyCoDE: Thomas A. Henzinger (© Rigaud), Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogia, Krzysztof Pietrzak. Meiosis: Beatriz Vicoso.
see Following

Credit: ©ISTA

Collaboration is essential to successful research and requires adequate funding. This is why the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) has awarded four Special Research Programs (SFB) for a total of nearly 15 million euros over the next four years. Nine group leaders from the Austrian Institute of Science and Technology (ISTA) and their teams join three of these science projects that cover a wide range of topics in quantum physics, molecular biology and computer science. The objective of this program is to strengthen local research networks and enable new multidisciplinary collaborations.

The research program “Correlated quantum materials and solid-state quantum systems” brings together two subfields of quantum physics: exotic forms of correlated quantum matter and quantum devices. From ISTA, the groups led by Zhanybek Alpichev, Andrew Higginbotham, Georgios Katsaros, Kimberley Modic, and Maxime Serbyn participate in this project. The program also includes researchers from TU Wien and German partners who have not yet been chosen by the DFG. “The future of quantum computing requires the discovery of topological properties in new materials, such as spin liquids or superconductors. Our approach is multifaceted, combining nano-fabrication of next-generation quantum materials with extremely high magnetic fields to uncover these exotic properties, explains Kimberly Modic. This research could help develop new devices and possible applications for quantum computers – see this dossier on quantum computers for more information on ISTA’s research on this topic.

The “SPyCoDE” project aims to create the technological foundations of security and privacy by design for IT infrastructure, as required by the EU GDPR. Researchers – among them Thomas A. Henzinger, Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogia, and Krzysztof Pietrzak from ISTA and other partners from TU Wien, TU Graz, Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt and the University of Vienna – aim to provide companies with the tools to achieve these goals by combining state-of-the-art results of cryptography and mathematical logic. “This SFB project provides much-needed focus and funding for the development of future-proof technologies that will not only enable secure information processing, but also strengthen the Austrian research community,” said Thomas A. Henzinger, Participating Scientist. and President of ISTA.

In the “Meiosis” project, the ISTA scientist Beatrice Vicoso will collaborate with researchers from Max Perutz Labs/University of Vienna, IMBA and JKU Linz to answer open questions about meiosis. It is the process by which cells with two sets of chromosomes produce haploid gametes – cells for sexual propagation. Characteristic of sexual reproduction, meiosis can be modified or completely lost in asexually reproducing organisms. How exactly this happens at the molecular level and what genetic pathways are involved is largely unknown and will be studied by the Vicoso (ISTA) and Dammermann (Max Perutz Labs) groups.

The fourth SFB project is called “Computational Electric Machine Laboratory” and focuses on optimizing electric machines – for example the motors of electric vehicles – using new simulation techniques. With this, participating researchers from TU Graz, JKU Linz and TU Darmstadt contribute to achieving international climate goals by creating the machines of tomorrow.

Media contact:

Marcus Feigl

markus.feigl@ist.ac.at

+43 664 8832 6393

ISTA

The Institute of Science and Technology (ISTA) is a doctoral research institution located in Klosterneuburg, 18 km from the center of Vienna, Austria. Inaugurated in 2009, the Institute is dedicated to fundamental research in the natural sciences and mathematics. ISTA employs faculty on a tenure-track system, postdoctoral fellows and doctoral students. Although dedicated to the principle of curiosity-driven research, the Institute owns the rights to all scientific discoveries and is committed to promoting their use. ISTA’s first president is Thomas A. Henzinger, a leading computer scientist and former professor at the University of California, Berkeley, USA, and EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland. The ISTA Doctoral School offers fully-funded doctoral positions to highly qualified candidates with bachelor’s or master’s degrees in biology, neuroscience, mathematics, computer science, physics and related fields. www.ist.ac.at


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Computer Science Undergraduate Wins Prestigious Research Fellowship to Support Work on Disinformation and the Role of Social Media | Community https://cetril.org/computer-science-undergraduate-wins-prestigious-research-fellowship-to-support-work-on-disinformation-and-the-role-of-social-media-community/ Wed, 19 Jan 2022 08:41:00 +0000 https://cetril.org/computer-science-undergraduate-wins-prestigious-research-fellowship-to-support-work-on-disinformation-and-the-role-of-social-media-community/ Courtesy of Joey Schafer Social media and other platforms used to communicate with large audiences are ubiquitous in today’s society with the expansion of apps like TikTok and Twitter. A popular creator who features a lesser-known creator may suffer the unintended consequence of contributing to the exponential growth of the latter’s followers or friends. The […]]]>









Social media and other platforms used to communicate with large audiences are ubiquitous in today’s society with the expansion of apps like TikTok and Twitter. A popular creator who features a lesser-known creator may suffer the unintended consequence of contributing to the exponential growth of the latter’s followers or friends. The smaller creator then commands a larger audience with which to communicate. For misinformation and disinformation researchers, the consequences of “spotlighting” are key to understanding how fake news spreads.

For Joey Schafer, a fourth-year undergraduate computer science student, spotlighting was more than a phenomenon for research. After his responnse to an article from The Atlantic was retweeted by Carl Bergstrom, a UW biology professor with more than 150,000 followers, Schafer saw his account skyrocket from several hundred followers to nearly 2,000 overnight.

Against his own expectations, Schafer became the subject of what he studied through the Mary Gates Fellowship he received last fall. Schafer’s research trajectory began as a freshman watching Human Centered Design and Engineering (HCDE) professor Kate Starbird give a talk about her research.

“I really enjoyed hearing about [Starbird’s research]”, Schafer said. “It seemed like it was making a difference – actually using computers to help people or to help understand what’s going on in our world. And that’s when I knew I wanted helping people.

Starbird is one of the co-founders of the Center for an informed public (CIP) where she leads misinformation and disinformation research as the current head of the faculty. Although CIP has a variety of research areas, its affiliates primarily focus their research on spreading false and misinformation regarding the Covid-19 pandemic and the last presidential election.

“I thought, ‘[The CIP] seems like a really cool thing, I’d like to get involved in that, Schafer said. But it was in my first trimester and I didn’t feel ready to join some sort of research lab with this amazing professor right away.

Schafer applied to join a research group and was accepted to work with HCDE PhD student Andrew Beers on data visualization for online disinformation. Later, Schafer worked with Starbird and other CIP faculty to conduct research on the 2020 election.

“We were working on monitoring misinformation and misinformation on specific topics related to the election,” Schafer said. “Things like voter fraud, trying to delegitimize the election, trying to intimidate voters or giving them false information about when the election is or where they might vote.”

Schafer collaborated with researchers at the Stanford Internet Observatory to monitor misinformation and disinformation in real time. CIP and the Stanford Internet Observatory are the two academic members of the Partnership for Election Integrity, a research group that formed in July 2020. Their full report,The Long Fuse: Misinformation and the 2020 Electionis available online at the Election Integrity Partnership website.

Jevin West, founding director of CIP, applauded Schafer’s advanced search capabilities.

“It was such a pleasure to have Joey Schafer in the IPC here at UW,” West said in an email. “Joey is one of the most advanced undergraduate researchers I have ever worked with. We joke in CIP that Joey should apply for faculty positions and not just graduate school. It is already producing faculty-level research that has national impact.

After completing this project in the fall of his third year, Schafer pursued independent research projects and publications.

“You can apply to graduate with honors [in computer science] and one of the requirements for that is working on an undergraduate thesis research project,” Schafer said. “That’s the project I’m currently working on, and the one the fellowship is for is to understand the impact of spotlighting on social media behavior, particularly in the context of misinformation.”

Starbird commended Schafer for his work on several projects with CIP that led to his honors thesis.

“Joey has been a core member of our research team for over two years – helping to visualize and analyze misinformation and misinformation related to the 2020 election and Covid-19,” Starbird said in an email.

Schafer will work with Starbird and Emma Spiro, co-founder of CIP and assistant professor in the School of Information, during her fellowship period to inform critical analyzes of social media use. Schafer aspires to continue his research on misinformation and disinformation regarding socio-technical systems like social media, and how they affect society.

“His current research examining the phenomenon of ‘spotlighting’ in social media posts will help us understand how attention is shaped – and conferred from one account to another – in online spaces,” said Starbird. “Joey is a brilliant student and researcher, and an incredible collaborator. He contributes to our research at the Center for an informed public in many ways. We are extremely lucky to have him on our team.

While navigating the complexity of being spotlighted by a well-known researcher, Schafer continued to work on research projects both independently and across departments to break down academic silos – and even gained acceptance an article with minor revisions in a research journal.

“I think it’s really rewarding to have these other disciplines to work with rather than just being trapped in, you know, a bubble like only computer science or only biology, or… whatever what other area you’re in,” Schafer says. “I think there’s a lot of value in this…sharing process.”

Schafer encouraged aspiring students to follow in his footsteps to find something that interests them at UW and to pursue opportunities outside of their stated discipline. This mindset helped bring Schafer full circle, working with the professor who inspired his freshman trajectory and receiving the Mary Gates Fellowship to support his interests.

The Mary Gates Research Fellowship supports undergraduate students engaged in research with a $5,000 grant spread over two academic terms. Interested candidates can apply in line during the fall or winter term.

Contact reporter Julie Emory at news@dailyuw.com. Twitter: @JulieEmory2

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Timothy Havens becomes director of the Great Lakes Research Center https://cetril.org/timothy-havens-becomes-director-of-the-great-lakes-research-center/ Mon, 17 Jan 2022 15:27:30 +0000 https://cetril.org/timothy-havens-becomes-director-of-the-great-lakes-research-center/ 3 hours ago Featured, Local News, News 317 Views Timothy Havens is blessed with a goal he set for himself over 20 years ago. Havens was a guest this week on Copper Country Today and talked about his experience as a student at Michigan Tech in the 1990s. He earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees in […]]]>

317 Views

Timothy Havens is blessed with a goal he set for himself over 20 years ago. Havens was a guest this week on Copper Country Today and talked about his experience as a student at Michigan Tech in the 1990s. He earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees in electrical and computer engineering from the university, then went to found working at MIT. He says he always wanted to find a way to come back here.

After sailing to Missouri to earn his doctorate, Havens made that dream a reality. He is part of the electrical and computer engineering faculty, with an office next to his mentor.

He will retain this position while also assuming the responsibilities of Director of the Great Lakes Research Center. Havens says the building’s location on campus allows it to easily accommodate faculty from multiple disciplines, and he hopes to continue to grow the institute. Havens says new robots will arrive this spring and will be the talk of the town.

The Great Lakes Research Center was founded in 2012 and led by Guy Meadows until recently. Meadows remains on staff and plays an active role in center operations.

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PhD at the Institute of Infrastructure, Technology, Research and Management (IITRAM) | IITRAM PhD https://cetril.org/phd-at-the-institute-of-infrastructure-technology-research-and-management-iitram-iitram-phd/ Sat, 15 Jan 2022 15:41:00 +0000 https://cetril.org/phd-at-the-institute-of-infrastructure-technology-research-and-management-iitram-iitram-phd/ Institute of Infrastructure, Technology, Research and Management (IITRAM), Near Khokhra Circle, Maninagar (East), Ahmedabad, Gujarat -380026, an autonomous university established by the Government of Gujarat, has called for applications for its Ph.D. Program (regular and part-time) 2021-22 (spring semester). The regular program is offered full-time (regular); Sponsored candidate [College teacher / Polytechnic teacher/ Employees of […]]]>

Institute of Infrastructure, Technology, Research and Management (IITRAM), Near Khokhra Circle, Maninagar (East), Ahmedabad, Gujarat -380026, an autonomous university established by the Government of Gujarat, has called for applications for its Ph.D. Program (regular and part-time) 2021-22 (spring semester).

The regular program is offered full-time (regular); Sponsored candidate [College teacher / Polytechnic teacher/ Employees of Government Organization / Employees of Public Sector Units]; Categories of Self-Funded Applicants and Fellows (FA). Part-time PhD. The program is offered in the categories College Teacher (CT), Institute Staff at IITRAM (IS). Details are available in the admissions policy document at http://iitram.ac.in/phd

Doctoral programs are offered in the departments of (i) Civil Engineering (ii) Electrical and Computer Engineering (iii) Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (iv) Basic Sciences (Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry) (v) Humanities and Social Sciences (English , economics, sociology).

The candidate should possess the following in the appropriate fields: (i) Engineering/Technology: Master’s and Bachelor’s degree in a relevant field of engineering/technology (ii) Basic Sciences: Master’s and Bachelor’s degree in the relevant field of science/engineering (iii) (iii ) Humanities and Social Sciences: Master’s degree in relevant Arts/Business/Science/Engineering/Technology subjects or equivalent degree and Bachelor’s degree in relevant Arts/Business/Science/Engineering/Technology subjects OR Diploma of studies 2-year postgraduates in subjects and bachelor’s degree in relevant arts/business/science/engineering/technology subjects.

Candidates must have the prescribed marks in the qualifying examinations. Detailed eligibility requirements are given in the admissions policy document at http://iitram.ac.in/phd

Application can be submitted online at http://iitram.ac.in/phd no later than 6:00 p.m. on January 22, 2022. Details of the admission process are also available here.

A hard copy of the application form with all necessary attachments must be submitted by 6:00 p.m. on January 25, 2022.

For more information, visit http://iitram.ac.in/phd

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Academics face prejudices in doing ‘female’ research https://cetril.org/academics-face-prejudices-in-doing-female-research/ Wed, 12 Jan 2022 13:19:28 +0000 https://cetril.org/academics-face-prejudices-in-doing-female-research/ Share this Item You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4.0 International license. An analysis of a million doctoral dissertations reveals widespread biases against research that appears to be simply feminine, even if it is not explicitly about women or gender. For more than a decade, women have earned more doctorates than […]]]>

An analysis of a million doctoral dissertations reveals widespread biases against research that appears to be simply feminine, even if it is not explicitly about women or gender.

For more than a decade, women have earned more doctorates than men in the United States. Despite this, women less often obtain tenure, are advertised and reach senior positions in academia than men.

Much of the research on why this might be focuses on structural barriers and explicit biases. But a new study by a team of researchers at the Stanford Graduate School of Education reveals a widespread implicit bias against academic work that appears to be simply feminine, even if it is not specifically about women or gender.

“Female” research

Analyzing nearly a million doctoral dissertations from US universities over a recent 40-year period, researchers found that academics who wrote on topics related to women, or used methodologies associated with women, were less likely to get senior faculty positions than those who did not.

“Everyone points out that academia is based on meritocracy… It’s a bit wrong, and it’s a bit impossible.

The issue was not so much a prejudice against feminist studies or gender studies, which have grown considerably since the 1970s. In fact, people who wrote their theses explicitly on women had slightly better career prospects. than those who wrote explicitly about men.

The real problem was a more subtle bias against subjects and research models that were “feminized,” meaning they were more associated with the traditions of women’s work. Academics whose thesis summaries contained words like parenthood, children, or relationship, for example, had slimmer career prospects than people who used words like algorithm, efficiency, or war.

Even within a particular field, be it sociology or computer science, academics whose theses were associated with women’s research traditions had poorer prospects than those who wrote more “masculine” theses in their fields. respective. Despite changes in social norms and an increasing number of female academics over time, the researchers found that the devaluation of research on women was more or less constant throughout the 40-year period.

“Everyone emphasizes that academia is based on meritocracy, that everything is neutral and based on the scientific merit of research,” said lead author of the study, Lanu Kim, who led the team at research as a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford and is now an assistant professor. at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. “It’s a bit wrong, and it’s a bit impossible. There may be differences in the research interests of men and women, and some topics are already associated with women rather than men. The process cannot really be neutral.

The study appears in the journal Research policy.

AI finds patterns

Researchers used natural language processing, a type of artificial intelligence used to study text models, to analyze dissertation abstracts in all fields of universities in the United States between 1980 and 2010.

To measure how “feminized” or “masculinized” a thesis can be, the researchers counted the concentration of words that had been used disproportionately by male or female doctoral candidates in previous years. This included words that explicitly referred to gender, such as woman, man, her or him.

Beyond that, however, the researchers looked for words associated with the interests of women or men, even though the words themselves had nothing to do with gender.

Among the terms strongly associated with women: school, teacher, child, parent, culture and participation. Terms strongly associated with men, on the other hand, ranged from algorithm and efficiency to words related to energy and electronics.

Less professional reward

The researchers then measured academic outlook by looking at which researchers held senior faculty positions. Specifically, they investigated whether a researcher was subsequently appointed senior faculty advisor on someone else’s doctoral thesis, which is a strong indicator of the long-term success of an emerging researcher. as an academic.

While there are many other measures of success, Kim and his colleagues wanted to know if academic institutions implicitly penalize academics for certain types of research.

Overall, only 6.3% of those who earned a doctorate went on to become an academic advisor, but women were about 20% less likely than men to achieve that grade.

Notably, academics who wrote theses explicitly on women had a slight advantage over those who wrote explicitly on men’s issues. This reflected the efforts of many universities to make up for lost ground after years of neglecting women’s issues.

Academics who pursued research topics and designs more implicitly associated with women, however, had less good prospects: their chances of becoming an educational advisor were 12% below average. Perhaps even more surprisingly, the implicit bias was actually greater in fields that had strong research traditions associated with women’s work in universities, like sociology, than in male-dominated fields, like engineering. mechanical.

For academics working in fields with a preponderance of research traditionally associated with women, women with doctorates are more likely to experience a triple disadvantage in the labor market, the authors write. “They are penalized for being women, [for] not to do a doctorate in a masculinized field, and [for] do not adopt human-like research practices.

“The disturbing inequity we have identified is one that female professors have probably long suspected, but continue to experience,” said Daniel McFarland, a Stanford professor and one of the study’s co-authors.

Kim and her colleagues have confirmed that women are now modestly rewarded for research into women’s issues. But implicit biases, they conclude, overwhelm this progress.

“As a society, we have made remarkable strides over the past century in transforming institutions of higher education and science,” said Daniel Scott Smith, doctoral student at Stanford and co-author of the study. “But the implicit biases against certain types of research undermine our current efforts to make the academy more diverse – in terms of who becomes university professors, but also in terms of what is considered valuable academic knowledge.”

Source: Stanford University

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UAH – News https://cetril.org/uah-news/ Mon, 10 Jan 2022 14:57:21 +0000 https://cetril.org/uah-news/ In addition to using the structure as a platform to generate antibiotics, researchers can also use it to design new sensors for molecules of interest, says Dr. Luis Rogelio (Roger) Cruz-Vera. Michel Mercier | UAH Research conducted by the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH) has for the first time identified the precise operational genetic […]]]>

In addition to using the structure as a platform to generate antibiotics, researchers can also use it to design new sensors for molecules of interest, says Dr. Luis Rogelio (Roger) Cruz-Vera.

Michel Mercier | UAH

Research conducted by the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH) has for the first time identified the precise operational genetic structure of a key system in Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, opening the door to possible new antibiotics to treat the infections it causes.

“The gene we studied is involved in the production of a bacterial hormone which is important for bacterial colonization. This hormone induces the production of sticky substances used by bacteria to adhere to inert surfaces, as well as to plants and animal tissues ”, explains Dr Luis Rogelio (Roger) Cruz-Vera, associate professor at the Department of Biological Sciences of the ‘UAH, part of the University of Alabama system.

“Our new structure will be used in future studies to obtain compounds capable of modulating the production of this hormone in bacteria, thus reducing bacterial colonization by modifying the bacterial cell’s ability to attach to surfaces and reduce communication with other cells. “

The most contagious E. coli cases are mild and lead to vomiting, diarrhea, cramping and fatigue, but some strains can cause serious illness and even life-threatening complications.

In 2015, Dr Cruz-Vera teamed up with Dr Emily Gordon and Dr Arnab Sengupta, both of whom were doctoral students in the UAH’s Biotechnology Science and Engineering program at the time, and whose work during their graduate studies produced the genetic and biochemical tests. used in the research paper the trio wrote with other collaborators. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation.

The two doctoral researchers graduated in the summer of 2015. Currently, Dr Gordon is an associate researcher at the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology and Dr Sengupta is an assistant professor at Georgia State and College University in Milledgeville, Georgia.

“We have determined with great precision the site of interaction of tryptophan, an essential amino acid, at its molecular sensor,” explains Dr. Cruz-Vera. “Bacteria use the protein-making machines called ribosomes as sensors for small molecules like tryptophan,” he says. “Bacteria sense their environment, as we do for example with our nose, to detect molecules that will be used as food. “

E. coli and other bacteria can detect L-tryptophan, then the sensor induces the expression of two genes, one which helps the bacteria to get L-tryptophan inside its cells and another which transforms L-tryptophan in energy and adhesion hormone.

“We got the most precise operational structure out of this system,” says Dr. Cruz-Vera.

The molecular complex as found in bacteria is not stable enough to give an idea of ​​how L-tryptophan interacts with the ribosome using current structural approaches, and this has hampered previous attempts by two different scientific groups.

To accurately identify the structure, Cruz-Vera’s group and collaborating scientists used genetic tools to isolate mutants that produced a more efficient tryptophan sensor. They then used biochemical approaches to discern which mutants were the most effective at detecting tryptophan. Finally, they identified structural approaches to determine the location of L-tryptophan in the ribosome.

If this system is disturbed by an antibiotic still to develop, then E. coli cannot attach to tissue and cannot communicate with other bacteria.

“Our future goals include testing several compounds, based on computer analysis, to find possible molecules that can block the interaction of tryptophan, which will reduce the expression of genes that produce the bacterial hormone,” explains Dr. Cruz-Vera.

In addition to using the structure as a platform to generate new antibiotics, researchers can also use it to design new sensors for molecules of interest, he says.

“This is an objective that my group shares with the group of Dr Jérôme Baudry,” Dr Cruz-Vera. “We would like to generate customizable biosensors, which could be used for molecular detection and bioremediation. “

Molecular biophysicist and UAH professor, Dr Baudry is the Ms. Pei Ling Chan Chair in the Department of Biological Sciences and has experience in drug discovery and computational biology.

Dr Cruz-Vera says his group has been studying this complex since he started at UAH in the summer of 2007.

“I am recognized around the world for all of my work on this complex,” he says. “My group generated the genetic and biochemical analyzes, and once we got them, I worked with three other globally recognized groups to get the end product, the structure of the complex. “

Collaborators include Texas A&M University, University of Chicago, and University of Bordeaux in Pessac, France.

“I am delighted that the UAH and the Department of Biological Sciences have collaborated with world-renowned groups in my area of ​​expertise,” said Dr Cruz-Vera. “This could lead to more of these articles in the near future. “


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What characters will appear in Peacemaker https://cetril.org/what-characters-will-appear-in-peacemaker/ Sat, 08 Jan 2022 20:16:28 +0000 https://cetril.org/what-characters-will-appear-in-peacemaker/ HBO Max The series with John Cena will be released on HBO Max next Thursday. It will consist of a total of 8 episodes and will be a direct continuation of The suicide squad. For Federico Fame 08/01/2022 – 19: 51hs UTC 08/01/2022 – 19: 51hs UTC © IMDbThe first three episodes will arrive next […]]]>

HBO Max

The series with John Cena will be released on HBO Max next Thursday. It will consist of a total of 8 episodes and will be a direct continuation of The suicide squad.

© IMDbThe first three episodes will arrive next Friday.

This Thursday he will arrive at HBO Max a new production of CC. Is about Peacemaker, series centered on the character played by Jean Cena in Suicide squad, which will be a direct continuation of this story and will have this anithhero with the responsibility of being the armed wing of a covert operation that seeks to destroy a group of people known as “Fireflies”. If you’re wondering if they’ll tell you how he survived after his apparent death in the movie, you can rest easy, because they will. Then we will tell you who are the characters that will accompany Chris smith in this story.

Vigilant

This new superhero was not in the movie Photos of Warner Bros. directed by James gunn. It is a figure which considers Peacemaker his best friend and who has moral values ​​just as twisted as the character of the price, although still characterized by greater innocence. One of his greatest pride is bragging that no one, not even Chris smith, know your true identity.

Emilie Harcourt

A very tough woman who will quickly attract the attention of Peacemaker while accomplishing the mission. He is a person who tries not to show weaknesses and who in no way will let men try to ignore him.

Auggie Smith – White Dragon

The father of Peacemaker is a man with a dark past associated with white supremacies who used his knowledge to become a villain looking to wipe out all minorities. In addition, he will openly denounce his son, whom he does not respect at all.

Léota Adebayo

The daughter of Amanda waller infiltrate the organization responsible for ending fireflies. It will be a double agent who passes information on to his mother but who clearly begins to notice that the world is not like Amanda he paints it.

Jean Economos

The technology specialist already seen in The suicide squad you will come back to watch the operation sitting in front of a computer.

Clemson murn

The leader of the operation and the only one who seems to understand for sure what and who they are fireflies. He’s a person who doesn’t like things not to go as planned.

Judomaster

This little guy will introduce himself as someone who has been hired as a bodyguard who will soon let him know Peacemaker and his allies that he is not as weak as his physique seems.

Larry Fitzgibbon and Sophie Song

The police officers who will begin to investigate what really happened to Peacemaker and why he was released, even though he had not served his sentence.

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Disclaimer: This article is generated from the feed and not edited by our team.

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New research reveals more hostile conditions on Earth as life evolves https://cetril.org/new-research-reveals-more-hostile-conditions-on-earth-as-life-evolves/ Thu, 06 Jan 2022 21:19:39 +0000 https://cetril.org/new-research-reveals-more-hostile-conditions-on-earth-as-life-evolves/ Graph showing how UV radiation on Earth has changed over the past 2.4 billion years. Credit: Gregory Cooke / Royal Society Open Science For long parts of the past 2.4 billion years, Earth may have been more inhospitable to life than scientists previously thought, according to new computer simulations. Using an advanced climate model, researchers […]]]>

Graph showing how UV radiation on Earth has changed over the past 2.4 billion years. Credit: Gregory Cooke / Royal Society Open Science

For long parts of the past 2.4 billion years, Earth may have been more inhospitable to life than scientists previously thought, according to new computer simulations.

Using an advanced climate model, researchers now believe the level of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth’s surface could have been underestimated, with UV levels up to ten times higher. students.

UV radiation is emitted by the sun and can damage and destroy biologically important molecules such as proteins.

The past 2.4 billion years represent an important chapter in the development of the biosphere. Oxygen levels have risen from almost zero to significant amounts in the atmosphere, concentrations fluctuating but eventually reaching modern concentrations about 400 million years ago.

During this time, more complex multicellular organisms and animals began to colonize the earth.

Timeline showing the change in Earth's oxygen concentrations

A rough overview of the oxygen (O2) concentrations in the Earth’s atmosphere over time is shown in this figure. The brown blocks show the estimated range of O2 based on its current air level (which is 21% by volume). The gray-blue lines indicated various events important to the evolution of life, including the emergence of eukaryotes and animals. Black arrows refer to important events where the atmospheric oxygen concentration has changed. The Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic are geological eons. GOE = Large oxidation event; NOE = neoproterozoic oxidation event; CE = Cambrian Explosion; LE = Lomagundi excursion. Credit: Gregory Cooke / Royal Society Open Science

Gregory Cooke, a doctoral researcher at the University of Leeds who led the study, said the findings raise new questions about the evolutionary impact of UV radiation, as many life forms are known to be adversely affected by intense doses of UV radiation.

He said: “We know UV rays can have disastrous effects if life is too exposed. For example, it can cause skin cancer in humans. Some organisms have effective defense mechanisms, and many can repair some of the damage caused by UV rays.

“While high amounts of UV radiation would not prevent the emergence or evolution of life, it could have acted as selection pressure as organisms are better able to cope with larger amounts of radiation. UV receiving an advantage. “

The research “A revised lower estimate of ozone columns during the oxygenated history of the Earth” was published on January 5, 2022 in the scientific journal Royal Society Open Science.

The amount of UV radiation reaching Earth is limited by ozone in the atmosphere, described by researchers as “… one of the most important molecules for life” due to its role in absorbing UV radiation. when it enters the Earth’s atmosphere.

Ozone is formed as a result of sunlight and chemical reactions – and its concentration depends on the level of oxygen in the atmosphere.

For the past 40 years, scientists have believed that the ozone layer is able to protect life from harmful UV rays when the level of oxygen in the atmosphere reaches about one percent of the current atmospheric level.

The new modeling calls this assumption into question. This suggests that the level of oxygen needed may have been much higher, perhaps 5-10% of current atmospheric levels.

As a result, there have been times when UV radiation levels on the Earth’s surface were much higher, and this could have been the case for most of Earth’s history.

Mr Cooke said: “If our modeling indicates atmospheric scenarios over the oxygenated history of the Earth, then for over a billion years the Earth could have been bathed in much more intense UV radiation. than previously believed.

“It could have had fascinating consequences on the evolution of life. It is not known precisely when the animals emerged, or what conditions they encountered in the oceans or on land. However, depending on the oxygen concentrations, animals and plants could have faced much more difficult conditions than the world today. We hope that the full evolutionary impact of our results can be explored in the future. “

The results will also lead to new predictions for exoplanet atmospheres. Exoplanets are planets orbiting other stars. The presence of certain gases, including oxygen and ozone, may indicate the possibility of extraterrestrial life, and the results of this study will help scientific understanding of surface conditions on other worlds.

Reference: “A Revised Lower Estimate of Ozone Columns During Earth’s Oxygen History” by GJ Cooke, DR Marsh, C. Walsh, B. Black and J.-F. Lamarque, January 5, 2022 , Royal Society Open Science.
DOI: 10.1098 / rsos.211165

The study was funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council and involved collaboration with scientists from the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Rutgers University and the City University of New York, all located in the United States.

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Undergraduate Counterfeit Drug Research Opens Door to Graduate Studies in Analytical Chemistry https://cetril.org/undergraduate-counterfeit-drug-research-opens-door-to-graduate-studies-in-analytical-chemistry/ Tue, 04 Jan 2022 19:05:00 +0000 https://cetril.org/undergraduate-counterfeit-drug-research-opens-door-to-graduate-studies-in-analytical-chemistry/ Newswise – A love for chemistry combined with an aptitude for machines led Kyle Burch, from Princeton, Minnesota, to do undergraduate research on anti-counterfeiting technologies in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of ‘State of South Dakota. This experience gave him the opportunity to continue working on new technology as a graduate […]]]>

Newswise – A love for chemistry combined with an aptitude for machines led Kyle Burch, from Princeton, Minnesota, to do undergraduate research on anti-counterfeiting technologies in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of ‘State of South Dakota. This experience gave him the opportunity to continue working on new technology as a graduate research assistant while pursuing a PhD. in the state.

During his freshman year at St. Cloud State University, Burch was researching chemistry professor Michael Dvorak to develop and improve instruments that detect specific chemicals. “It was a very informative time and Dr Dvorak was satisfied with my work,” said Burch.

Dvorak suggested that Burch apply for a summer internship as part of the National Science Foundation‘s Undergraduate Research Experience Program, held at SDSU under the guidance of Professor Brian Logue. Participants carried out interdisciplinary research to support the South Dakota Center for Security Printing and Anticounterfeiting Technology.

“When I met Dr. Logue, he told me that my analytical chemistry skills and my background in developing prototypes would work well for the project,” Burch said. “I have a construction training as a carpenter and bricklayer and I have experience in construction. I thought it would be really fun.

Logue said, “Kyle has a unique interest in machines that we don’t often find in chemistry students. He brings hands-on instrumentation experience as well as a solid background in analytical chemistry to our research to detect counterfeit drugs.

Improve ice cubes

In the summer of 2019, Burch spent 10 weeks improving an instrument used to perform a technique called ICECLES – ICE Concentration Linked with Extractive Stirrer – which Logue and his team developed and patented in 2015. The device, which is designed for to extract traces of chemicals, combines an established method called stir bar sorption extraction with freeze to concentrate the solution.

“The main power of ICECLES is that when the sample freezes from the bottom up, the stir bar rides the ice and catches the compounds,” explained Burch, whose job it was to increase the processing capacity of the. machine. “The prototype is automated and autonomous, so it is not sensitive to environmental changes. However, at that time, he only had the ability to do two samples simultaneously. It was less than the established method.

Burch worked with SDSU Associate Professor Jay Shore, a physical chemist, and research associate Jason Sternhagen of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, to increase the maximum sample volume from 10 to 50 milliliters. “We made really good progress – multiplying the volume by five was huge,” said Burch.

Before Burch left Brookings to complete his bachelor’s degree at St. Cloud State, Logue asked if he would be interested in returning for graduate school and working on ICECLES and other analytical chemistry research as a graduate assistant in his laboratory. The assistantship covers tuition fees and provides a monthly stipend. Burch accepted and began the doctoral bachelor’s degree program, which typically lasts five years, in the fall of 2020.

Determination of the chemical fingerprint

Through a new multi-agency state research center, the South Dakota Center for Understanding and Disrupting the Illicit Economy, Logue and his research group determine the chemical makeup of drugs from various manufacturers in order to find a chemical fingerprint which will then allow them to identify counterfeit drugs.

ICECLES technology plays an essential role in the concentration and extraction of compounds for chemical fingerprinting. “We changed the way the agitation mechanism works, making it more efficient,” Burch explained. While the first prototype increased the sensitivity of the signal by 400 times, “we are now up to 2000 times (greater sensitivity)”.

This is important when detecting counterfeit drugs, especially those containing minute but deadly amounts of fentanyl, Burch said. “Being able to improve the signal means that these small amounts will not be a limiting factor as we will be able to use the majority of the sample.”

Its next goal is to improve the consistency of fingerprints derived from different brands of aspirin, which are used to show that the methodology works. Although the initial goal is to identify counterfeit prescription drugs, the technique will eventually be applied to controlled substances.

After completing his doctorate, Burch would like to run a lab. “I like the technical aspects of the laboratory, but also the personal aspect of people management. “

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